While European labour markets remain dominated by standard employment – that is, permanent full-time employment subject to labour law – continuous labour market change is increasing the share of non-standard employment. Notably ‘compound non-standard employment’, combining elements of different nonstandard employment forms (such as involuntary short-term part-time employment), has grown over the past decade (Eurofound, 2020). This raises concerns among policymakers because of the inherent potential for precarious and vulnerable employment. The validity of such concerns is obvious at the time of writing this report.
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